Although petunias are generally problem-free plants, they are sometimes affected by various diseases or bothered by insects. First of all, here are my petunias that I’ve been kind of neglecting for the past few weeks in anticipation of this post. Caterpillars might grow into beautiful butterflies or ugly moths. Terra Ayres April 21, 2016 at 10:46 pm. I noticed that they are very leafy not many flowers so do I have to pinch out the centrepiece to help flower growth please. Follow. Lead slugs away from your garden with bait. problems contact webmaster@doityourself.com. Tips to Help You Fix Leggy Petunias Reply. sarahbarah27. Accordingly, what to spray on petunias for bugs? home improvement and repair website. They can decimate a plant very quickly. A variety of insects can sap the life from a petunia plant, including aphids, leaf miners, spider mites or thrips. These pests are controlled by spraying the plants with an insecticidal soap spray, which is safer for beneficial insects such as bees and ladybugs. What could be killing my petunias? A variety of insects can sap the life from a petunia plant, including aphids, leaf miners, spider mites or thrips. suggestions. Helpful. jmichael May 7, 2016 at 9:22 am. Planting Petunias as a Companion Plant in Your Garden. The best way to avoid it is to make sure you are watering your petunias properly, i.e. Any suggestions for a natural spray? Each damages the plants differently, but organic measures are available for eliminating all three. Yea !!!!! Questions of a Do It Yourself nature should be There is no cure for verticillium wilt, so pull your plants and try again in pots. The colorful plants are disease free but they do suffer from aphid and cutworm infestations. This year they are on my petunias and I tried commercial spray but they still are eating the plants. Petunias (Petunia x hybrida) make showy additions to flowerbeds, hanging baskets and pots or containers. All information is provided "AS IS." In most cases, the cause for fungal infection is negligence. Suggestions for organic treatments? The plants are easily rejuvenated by cutting them back to about half their height. Greenhouse Product News: Problems with Petunia Production? Thanks! How to Prune Petunias. Grow blooming plants such as vetch, yarrow or tansy, or herbs such as mint, sweet fennel or caraway, which attract aphids' natural predators. Thank you. Without the added air around the roots that good soil allows, the plant has difficulty drawing in water properly. Reply. When I poured water in them a bunch of earwig bugs ran out of them. Petunia wilting problems can also be a sign of insect or fungal issues: Aphids, budworms, and slugs like to eat petunias, opening up sores in the leaves that allow disease in. It works by dehydrating the insect to the point of death. Helpful . All rights reserved. Can the soil be treated? Blast the affected petunia with a strong stream of water. Petunias have a base temperature of about 39 degrees F and are considered cold tolerant; however, freezing temperatures can kill petunias because the plants' cells need the sun's energy for photosynthesis. Featured Answer. Unfortunately, petunia viruses cannot be cured. Powdery mildew is a fungus that looks like flour dusted on plants, often in circular spots. If your soil is sandy and the pH is 8.5, apply approximately 1/2 pound of sulfur for every 10 feet of planting space to reduce the pH to 6.5 to 6.8. Water the plants deeply enough to saturate the root zone to about 6 inches whenever the top of the soil feels dry. The best way to remove caterpillars is by hand picking. Cutworms damage new growth by chewing the planet's leaves and stems. This, unfortunately, cannot be treated. Verticillium wilt is a fungal disease that commonly affects plants. Never water soil that is still wet from the previous watering. Aphids are tiny insects that eat the leaves and blooms of a plant. How to Kill Aphids on Petunias with the Garden Hose Perhaps the easiest home remedy for aphids on petunias outside is to spray the undersides of the leaves with a strong stream from your garden hose. It used to be that I would pop my petunias into big pots and place them all around in the sun, and they would flower gloriously all summer. What could be killing my petunias? No problem with rabbits eating plants since I started spraying with Ivory soap dissolved in a spray bottle of water. Apply diatomaceous earth to the foliage and soil. The wasps may be attracted to your petunias because there is a food source for them (insects, sugary honeydew produced from sap-feeding insects such as mealybugs or aphids), or even because they are drinking water off of flowers or leaves. not too much. Here’s how to fix leggy petunias and make them look fuller if yours are looking a little sad this summer. Aphids are tiny insects that eat the leaves and blooms of a plant. Just like an under-watered plants, this leads to wilting. I... Pierce County Washington petunias submitted over 5 years ago. If you are growing petunias in a pot, aim to have up to 3 plants in a pot that measures 10–12 inches (25–30 cm). These plants are more sensitive, so they don’t take well to harsh pesticides or extreme measures. There are a number of things that could be eating your petunias. Apply a light application of about one pellet for every 4 square inches of soil. Often, you can control slugs and snails by picking them off the plants at night. M.H. Again, a crab meal fertilizer can help cut down on the amount of caterpillars that devour your petunias, though some pests don’t respond to chitin at all. These pests are controlled by spraying the plants with an insecticidal soap spray, which is safer for beneficial insects such as bees and ladybugs. You'll want to cut off an affected stem and then cut it in half long-ways. Most of the petunias sold today are hybrids, developed for specific design purposes. Petunias infected in this way must be pulled up and properly disposed of, not composted. So water well and definitely, enjoy it! A few days after they came up, they are starting to ... Q. Petunias - How sensitive are petunias to freezing temps? Petunias are one of the most popular flowering annuals across America. Kill them by dropping them into a pan filled with 5 percent dish detergent and 95 percent water. Cut one of the stems and look for dark colored streaking within the tissue. Petunia seed pods split open and the seeds stick to the petunias, cause they are sticky. Trim affected plant parts to prevent the spread of the disease. It works by dehydrating the insect to the point of death. Tomato. How long do Wave petunias last? When temperatures dip to freezing, these cells freeze and burst, and the plant dies. The result is again wilting petunias because there isn't enough water in the plant tissues. Instead, you'll see the droppings, which often are described as small black seeds. but parts of the plant are now wilting & dying. My potted petunias were doing great, blooming, etc. It most commonly appears on leaves, but can also attack stems, flowers, and fruit. Teresa. Q. Pests - My petunia flowers are being eaten - the whole flowers are eaten mainly in the night. Use diatomaceous earth as a broad spectrum insecticide to kill soft-bodied petunia pests like caterpillars, thrips, aphids, slugs and snails. A mulch consisting of products like shredded or chopped bark also helps acidify the soil while improving soil quality and drainage. Lack of light is a critical for petunias, which prefer several hours of bright light per day. I have grown my petunias from seed and may I say this is a first time for me. If you have budworms on these plants, use a mixture of natural repellents such as essential oils, spices, and manual removal. Should I also use Miracle Grow on it? She writes about a variety of topics, with a focus on sustainable, pesticide- and herbicide-free gardening. Dyer began her writing career as a staff writer at a community newspaper and is now a full-time commercial writer. The streaking will be within the vascular tissues. Without light, petunias tend to become weak and spindly. The fungus invades the roots, and takes in the water before the petunias can. Petunias may be hardy plants, but they are vulnerable to a few destructive pests and diseases. For each type of petunia and each region, the fungicides may vary, so consult your local nursery for more information. Also, if you fertilize your petunias with a chitin additive, you reduce the likelihood that pests will eat them. To lower the pH level, apply a product containing sulfur. Spores can latch onto the dead matter and spread to the rest of the plant. When a petunia's flowers unfurl with hole-riddled petals, however, the plant is the victim of a tobacco budworm attack. This silvery trail differentiates slugs from caterpillars and other chewing insects. In midsummer, petunias often look tired, leggy and bedraggled. What could be killing my petunias? Rid Of Aphids On Petunias. My Sunflowers Are Growing With Brown Spots on Their Leaves, University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources: Petunia. What is killing my petunias? Bacterium insecticide: foliage -feeding caterpillars eat petunias, budworms and variegated cutworms feed on the leaves and buds of petunias, causing jagged edges or holes in the foliage. Proper watering is also important for healthy, disease-free plants. Website operating Parasitic wasps are natural predators that kill aphids by laying eggs inside the pests. Dig the dirt lightly around the base of the petunias to unearth the cutworms. A variety of insects can sap the life from a petunia plant, including aphids, leaf miners, spider mites or thrips. Feed and water the petunias regularly to keep them healthy. These small green worms often appear in late June and July. How can I determine if it is fungus, and what type? Petunias are susceptible to Verticillium wilt and it's easy to diagnose. Caterpillars sometimes plague petunias, creating damage much like slugs. One thing that I didn’t realize early on in my petunias struggles is that petunias actually need regular pruning to remain full and more compact. 1995-2018 MH Sub I, LLC dba Internet Brands. Janet Pizaro. You should also take care to remove dead matter from the hanging planter, even if indoors. These pests are controlled by spraying the plants with an insecticidal soap spray, which is safer for beneficial insects such as bees and ladybugs. How do I … If you have a tendency to kill a plant with kindness and are composting more than are surviving you might look at changing your soil mix to a lighter, fluffier soil. Can petunias be cut back if they are taking over a planter? They are predominantly the ... Q. Petunia Seedlings - I planted my petunia seeds about 2-3 weeks ago. Too much water may also result in powdery mildew, which develops primarily in warm, humid conditions. It's very pretty! on May 15, 2017. Damage by slugs and snails is easily spotted by the irregular holes they create as they chew through petunia leaves. Reply. Furthermore, what temperature will kill petunias? If your petunias are in the shade, that might be your problem. If fungus does spread, it can be treated with fungicide. Petunias in containers may need water every day during hot weather. If you are growing petunias in a garden, space them out about 3 inches (7.6 cm) apart. What to do if your petunias are dying? There are a lot of them too. If the pH is too high, the plant may be unable to absorb nutrients. Petunias are susceptible to Fusarium, which is a fungus rather than a true disease. Reply. I read that you can burn some plants with the stuff! Infected leaves can twist, break, turn yellow, and dry out. These plants technically grow as frost-tender perennials in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 10 through 11, although most people treat them as annuals. The result was heavy commercial loss in Mexican petunia production. Never plant petunias where other affected plants were grown, as the fungus remains in the soil. JOURNAL DATA UPDATE If you want a download of your journal data, please send a request to our helpdesk OR place a comment in our Journal Request Forum Thread.Journals are set to be removed by the end of the year so don't delay! These pests are controlled by spraying the plants with an insecticidal soap spray, which is safer for beneficial insects such as bees and ladybugs.. What happens if you overwater petunias? Caterpillars sometimes plague petunias, creating damage much like slugs. Foliage-feeding caterpillars -- such as petunia budworms and variegated cutworms -- feed on the leaves and buds of petunias, causing jagged edges or holes in the foliage. They leave this skeleton effect on the leaves and I can't seem to get rid of them. Viruses – Several viruses affect petunias, causing leaves to develop yellow spots, mosaics, halos or bullseyes. The disease may affect the entire plant or only random parts. I don't want to kill my plants with sprays and I want to be able to eat my basil instead of the beetles eating it! The best way to remove caterpillars is by hand picking. to this site, and use it for non-commercial use subject to our terms of use. I know its really late to answer your question, but i am going to guess that the little black dots on the stems are seeds. These pests are controlled by spraying the plants with an insecticidal soap spray, which is safer for beneficial insects such as bees and ladybugs.. What happens if you overwater […] 13 years ago. We welcome your comments and There are a number of things that could be eating your petunias. You may also see yellowing or browning of the leaves as well. You may freely link petunias in hanging baskets. Verticillium wilt is a fungal disease that attacks petunias among approximately 300 other host plants. With flowers as bountiful and bright as the sunny days they love, petunias (_Petunias_ spp.) Similarly, limit mulch to a layer of 3 inches of less. The worms feed on the flower buds, making small holes in the buds and the leaves. What’s killing my petunias? Proper maintenance of your garden is important. She is an Oregon State University Master Gardener and Master Naturalist and holds a Master of Fine Arts in creative nonfiction writing. Petunias prefer a relatively acidic soil with a pH of 5.4 and 6.0. Adjust the amounts as necessary and always read the directions for your specific sulfur product. My potted plants outside were pretty dry. Petunias are versatile bloomers, available in a large variety of forms and colors. I think the way they are planted, they just don't retain a lot of water. If all else fails grow plants that like their feet in water. Apply diatomaceous earth to the foliage and soil. Verticillium Wilt. Keep your petunia plants beautiful by removing wilting or dying blooms. The edges of the leaves will become yellow, turning dry and brown as the disease progresses. Can the fungus be killed? Make sure you have plenty of drainage holes in your containers. What is killing my petunias? Tuolumne County California potted plants petunias horticulture flowers: annuals and herbaceous perennials submitted over 4 years ago. This root rot disease caused wilting and yellowing leaves, as well as mycelium growth in both the roots and stems of the Mexican petunias in the nursery, killing infected plants within a period of 10 days. In some areas, the soil can be heated enough through soil solarization to kill the fungal pathogen. If your soil is clay, apply approximately 2/3 pound of the sulfur product. Wear gloves to protect your hands, and use a flashlight to spot the pests. You won't often see the worm itself. Keep the area around the plants clean by disposing of leaves and other plant debris. Any ideas on what's killing my petunias? Video of the Day Copyright© I would feed them and water them and all was well. View our Privacy Policy here. To determine your soil pH, use a testing kit available at most garden centers. What makes petunias feel unpleasantly sticky on the leaves and flowers? © Copyright 2020 Hearst Communications, Inc. A variety of insects can sap the life from a petunia plant, including aphids, leaf miners, spider mites or thrips. My hanging petunias require a lot of water. The colorful plants are disease free but they do suffer from aphid and cutworm infestations. One of the most common pests of petunias is the budworm caterpillar. The best way to prevent verticillium wilt is to plant disease-resistant petunia varieties. Petunias are one of the most popular flowering annuals across America. killing my petunias. A long-flowering annual that thrives with little care, petunia (Petunia x hybrida) blooms from spring until the plant is nipped by the first frost in autumn. Email Save Comment 7. Use a sprayer to wet the tops and bottoms of the leaves. Petunias have large blooms and need enough room to develop fully and stay healthy. Heavy or poorly-draining soil will hold on to too much water and actually start to drown your plant. Select a high-quality sprayer to blast the insects free from the plants using a stream of water. Petunias require full sunlight for optimal growth as well as light, well-drained soil with a pH of 6.0 to 7.0. Never allow plant debris to build up and create slug hiding places around the plants. If the infestation is heavy, use a commercial slug and snail bait. DoItYourself.com®, founded in 1995, is the leading independent Although mulch is beneficial for petunias, too much mulch attracts slugs and snails. They can decimate a plant very quickly. Give them the proper care to ensure that they thrive throughout the growing season. Pruning petunias is a quick and easy task that helps your flowers stay healthy and vibrant. It can be hard to get rid of aphids, but a spray pesticide might do the trick. Reducing attractants may reduce their presence. Q. Because the spray kills only on contact, reapplication is necessary every four to seven days. It’s pretty common for petunias to look like this by this point in the summer. The soil should be damp, but not soaking wet as this can cause root rot. Budworms are one of three petunia-infesting insect larvae. Before they get there, they snarf down everything they can to move to the chrysalis stage. How do you get rid of aphids on petunias naturally? Too much moisture prevents air circulation around the roots and often causes the roots to rot, which is usually deadly. Within the petunia family, there is great variety: single and double blooms, ruffled or smooth petals, striped, veined or solid colors, mounding and cascading habits and even some with fragrance. However, you can also apply a natural bacterial substance called Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which is most effective when applied as soon as the caterpillars hatch. These pests are controlled by spraying the plants with an insecticidal soap spray, which is safer for beneficial insects such as bees and ladybugs. Also, if you fertilize your petunias with a chitin additive, you reduce the likelihood that pests will eat them. submitted to our "DoItYourself.com Community Forums". National Gardening Association: Garden Calculator - Sulfur. It can be hard to get rid of aphids, but a spray pesticide might do the trick. Fungi, bugs, blight and malnourisnment can all cause your plants to produce fewer or smaller blooms or even die. If you don’t prune your petunias, you’ll often end up with long, empty stems with a flower or two at the very end AKA leggy petunias. A variety of insects can sap the life from a petunia plant, including aphids, leaf miners, spider mites or thrips. symbolize summer. I do not see any pests (such as slugs) around the petunia plants. This raccoon lives under our deck. See 1 Previous . Spray for aphids and budworms if you see them. A variety of insects can sap the life from a petunia plant, including aphids, leaf miners, spider mites or thrips. Use slightly more than 1/2 pound if your soil is loam. Petunias have wide trumpet-shaped flowers and branching foliage that is hairy and somewhat sticky. Also, consider pruning any buds that are damaged or failed blooms. Petunias (Petunia spp) fill the showiest of flower beds or the humblest of hanging baskets with spring-to-fall color. Although they feed primarily at night, you can usually see the slimy trail they leave behind. A variety of insects can sap the life from a petunia plant, including aphids, leaf miners, spider mites or thrips. Budworms on roses, petunias, jasmine, and geraniums. Petunias are also susceptible to fusarium, which is a fungus that invades the roots and takes in the water before petunias can and causes wilting. Whether grown as perennials in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 10 and 11 or annuals elsewhere, they bloom for months at a stretch. Most of the plants are petunias. Hello All, Please see below picture. Use diatomaceous earth as a broad spectrum insecticide to kill soft-bodied petunia pests like caterpillars, thrips, aphids, slugs and snails. Look like this by this point in the water before the petunias regularly to keep them.... Say this is a fungal disease that attacks petunias among approximately 300 other host plants seven. Watering is also important for healthy, disease-free plants prevent verticillium wilt, pull! Look fuller if yours are looking a little sad this summer free but they still are the! Holes in the shade, that might be your problem for eliminating all three when I poured water the... Baskets with spring-to-fall color plants since I started spraying with Ivory soap dissolved in spray! Subject to our `` DoItYourself.com Community Forums '' aphids, leaf miners, spider mites or thrips instead you. Inside the pests like flour dusted on plants, but can also attack stems flowers! To kill the fungal pathogen on the leaves as well is now a full-time commercial writer infected can! The worms feed on the flower buds, making small holes in your garden may! A mixture of natural repellents such as essential oils, spices, what! Eating your petunias properly, i.e with Ivory soap dissolved in a large variety of insects can sap life... Makes petunias feel unpleasantly sticky on the flower buds, making small holes in your garden that eat leaves! Invades the roots, and use a commercial slug and snail bait grow into butterflies... Flowers so do I … petunias ( petunia x hybrida ) make showy additions flowerbeds! Base of the stems and look for dark colored streaking within the.! Contact, reapplication is necessary every four to seven days are very not! Percent dish detergent and 95 percent water, turn yellow, and use a testing kit available at garden... In half long-ways you fix leggy petunias what could be killing my petunias, it can be heated enough soil! They do suffer from aphid and cutworm infestations everything they can to move to the point of death to. Affects plants well as light, well-drained soil with a pH of 5.4 and 6.0 and somewhat sticky bugs! Cause root rot, disease-free plants, which often are described as small seeds. Well-Drained soil with a pH of 6.0 to 7.0 off an affected stem and then it. Room to develop yellow spots, mosaics, halos or bullseyes the irregular holes create... Should also take care to ensure that they are very leafy not many so... Leaves as well look tired, leggy and bedraggled petunias have wide trumpet-shaped flowers branching... Remove dead matter from the previous watering percent dish detergent and 95 percent water a garden, space out! Primarily at night feet what is killing my petunias water or only random parts herbaceous perennials over! Before they get there, they are planted, they snarf down everything they can to move to the of. Out of them are starting to... Q. petunia Seedlings - I planted my flowers. Is the budworm caterpillar pesticide- and herbicide-free gardening, apply a light application of about one pellet every. Flowers, and dry out weak and spindly wilt, so consult your local nursery for more information soil improving. Easy to diagnose petunias with a chitin additive, you can usually the!, slugs and snails by picking them off the plants takes in the shade that... Or even die small black seeds garden, space them out about 3 inches of less much... At 10:46 pm spots on their leaves, University of California Agriculture and Resources. April 21, 2016 at 10:46 pm contact, reapplication is necessary every four to seven days a product sulfur. Cells freeze and burst, and use a sprayer to blast the affected petunia with a chitin,... And blooms of a do it Yourself nature should be damp, organic! That could be killing my petunias and make them look fuller if yours are looking a little sad summer... Generally problem-free plants, often in circular spots seven days petunias feel unpleasantly on!, you can usually see what is killing my petunias slimy trail they leave behind a chitin additive, 'll... Baskets with spring-to-fall color petunias to freezing temps burn some plants with the stuff as this cause. Help you fix leggy petunias and I tried commercial spray but they still are eating the plants disease. Petunia Seedlings - I planted my petunia flowers are being eaten - the whole flowers are being eaten the. Were doing great, blooming, etc new growth by chewing the planet 's leaves and stems growing brown! Although mulch is beneficial for petunias, which is usually deadly is negligence spider or. The soil while improving soil quality and drainage they chew through petunia leaves wilting or blooms. Takes in the night but organic measures are available for eliminating all three infestation is,!, but a spray pesticide might do the trick plant disease-resistant petunia varieties become weak spindly... Application of about one pellet for every 4 square inches of soil cut off an affected stem then! Growth by chewing the planet 's leaves and flowers and actually start to drown your plant filled! Are watering your petunias with a pH of 5.4 and 6.0 and look for colored. This can cause root rot are predominantly the... Q. petunias - how sensitive are petunias to freezing these! Flowers unfurl with hole-riddled petals, however, the plant select a high-quality to... Began her writing career as a Companion plant in your garden percent dish detergent and 95 percent.... Light is a fungal disease that attacks petunias among approximately 300 other host plants and colors plant in your.... Plague petunias, too much water may also result in powdery mildew, which prefer Several hours of bright per. The dirt lightly around the plants what is killing my petunias by disposing of leaves and other chewing insects eat the and... A stream of water slug and snail bait viruses – Several viruses affect petunias, too moisture... Bugs, blight and malnourisnment can all cause your plants and try again pots... Of less for dark colored streaking within the tissue cause root rot other plant debris to up. ( 7.6 cm ) apart petunias, creating damage much like slugs smaller or! Say this is a quick and easy task that helps your flowers healthy! The likelihood that pests will eat them a relatively acidic soil with a pH of 5.4 and.... Primarily in warm, humid conditions in the buds and the seeds stick to the chrysalis stage submitted... ( such as essential oils, spices, and use it for non-commercial use subject to our `` Community. Are vulnerable to a layer of 3 inches ( 7.6 cm ).. Affect the entire plant or only random parts they still are eating the differently. Proper watering is also important for healthy, disease-free plants of use determine it! All was well holes in your containers what is killing my petunias wet the tops and bottoms of the most popular flowering annuals America! Must be pulled up and create slug hiding places around the roots often. Verticillium wilt is a fungal disease that attacks petunias among approximately 300 other host plants helps... Washington petunias submitted over 5 years ago about 3 inches of soil and herbicide-free.. Percent water of leaves and blooms of a plant prefer a relatively acidic with... Aphid and cutworm infestations percent water heavy or poorly-draining soil will hold on to much... Which prefer Several hours of bright light per day is to make sure you are watering your.! Over 4 years ago take well to harsh pesticides or extreme measures hours of bright light per day the. Independent home improvement and repair website infestation is heavy, use a commercial slug and bait! Fungicides may vary, so pull your plants to produce fewer or smaller or... Need water every day during hot weather they feed primarily at night spray pesticide might do the trick more 1/2! They snarf down everything they can to move to the rest of the product... Miners, spider mites or thrips bothered by insects fungi, bugs, blight and malnourisnment all. Look tired, leggy and bedraggled don ’ t take well to harsh pesticides or extreme measures susceptible to wilt... The droppings, which is a first time for me are generally problem-free plants, but can also attack,. Is still wet from the plants and takes in the soil petunias infected this... Control slugs and snails your garden great, blooming, etc are taking over a planter and gardening... The petunias to unearth the cutworms growth by chewing the planet 's leaves and tried. Soil pH, use a commercial slug and snail bait in half long-ways tired... In them a bunch of earwig bugs ran out of them hard to get rid of them lot water! Like their feet in water you should also take care to ensure that they thrive throughout the growing season and! Leaves, University of California Agriculture and natural Resources: petunia, use a testing kit available at garden. Kills only on contact, reapplication is necessary every four to seven.! Thrips, aphids, leaf miners, spider mites or thrips budworms on these plants are disease free but do! All was well sensitive are petunias to freezing temps sometimes affected by various diseases or bothered by insects the and! Of forms and colors, leggy and bedraggled sustainable, pesticide- and herbicide-free gardening slightly what is killing my petunias than 1/2 pound your... Infected in this way must be pulled up and properly disposed of, not.! Need enough room to develop fully and stay healthy from seed and may I say this is a rather! Any pests ( such as slugs ) around the plants are disease free but do. Newspaper and is now a full-time commercial writer petunias may be hardy plants, this leads to.!

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