Gabriel, R. A. It seemed impossible for either to cross. Having crushed the Persian King, Darius, in two major battles upon his arrival in Mesopotamia, Alexander’s power and military prestige in the east appeared irresistible. Nevertheless, even with this change, Alexander always prioritised having his army as light as possible throughout his campaigns. Sort by. No military commander in history has ever won a battle by himself. Philip’s ban had worked because – having been fighting in Europe – his men had been able to return home after each campaigning season to see their loved ones. As with the previously abandoned hoplite phalanx, the new army was designed to attack and remained a purely offensive weapon. Instead, he used horses as the prominent pack animal – the first time a western commander had done this. Consequently, many of the remaining Persian officials soon surrendered to Alexander – even before the Macedonian army had reached their territory. Perhaps surprisingly, the size of his army never went over 40,000. It soon provided dividends as it gave his army more mobility. Alexander ran his army from the royal tent where his war counsel would meet in a large pavilion. His army cheerd at this act, he still was loved by his army. With trade and the Greek world expanding, for political and economic reasons, each city had to learn to defend itself. Alexander the Great. The Army of Alexander the Great: Composition The force that under the command of Alexander the Great invaded and conquered the Persian Empire, thus ensuring the extension of the Hellenistic culture to most of the world known at that time, was composed in total … Eventually, his empire was divided among various generals, the two most important being Seleucus and Ptolemy. As Alexander and Coenus were secured more cities, Spitamenes was left without bases and means of provisioning. Cite This Work Alexander was wounded many times in battle while he conquered the (then-known) world, so he literally bled with his troops (but always recovered.) ... She hired an army of people who earned lots of money for protecting the boy who would become the king of Macedonia. The Companion Cavalry Heavy (armoured) cavalry, usually stationed on the right wing, and commanded by Alexander. 6 comments. Philip increased the size of the army from 10,000 to 24,000, & enlarged the cavalry from 600 to 3,500. In the spring of 327 BC, Alexander and his army marched into India invading Punjab. Alexander the Great served as king of Macedonia from 336 to 323 B.C. Whenever possible, they would also eat dried meat, salted fish and shellfish to supplement their diet. A combination of reasons, but probably most importantly a troop-type called ‘skirmishers’. 32 dekas (a line of ten men – later sixteen) made up each lochoi. Alexander realised he could use this to solve his supply problem. He built great cities and changed forever the customs of a people. Unfortunately, most of the primary historical sources for this period have been lost. Olympias was Alexander’s mother, protector, and best friend. this Macedonian changed the whole nature of the Ancient World. In 325 BC Alexander headed back from India, across the Gedrosian desert. He immediately initiated a series of military reforms. The way Alexander and his army appeared. Most historians believed Philip developed his ideas while a hostage in Thebes, observing their notorious Sacred Band. The very nature of the phalanx required constant drilling, and both men demanded strict obedience; punishments would be meted out for those who disobeyed. Alexander recognized this and is quoted as saying, “Remember upon the conduct of each depends the fate of all.”, Alexander the Great in Combatby Warner Brothers (Copyright, fair use). The Army of Alexander the Great: Composition. Greece was emerging from a dark period in its history - the troubling times of the poet Homer. Ancient History Encyclopedia. During his intrepid march of the 10,000 out of Asia some 50 years before, Xenophon had decided to burn his wagons to lighten the load of his army. Empire of Alexander the Great. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. And Alexander was extremely popular with his army. Heavy Cavalry: from 1,700 to 2,100 riders In the festival procession Philip was assassinated by a young Macedonian noble, Pausanias. Alexander's relationship with his father forged the competitive side of his personality; he had a need to outdo his father, illustrated by his reckless behaviour in battle. Alexander now sent much of his army to Carmania (modern southern Iran) with his general Craterus, and commissioned a fleet to explore the Persian Gulf shore under his admiral Nearchus, while he led the rest of his forces back to Persia by the southern route through the Gedrosian Desert (now part of southern Iran and Makran now part of Pakistan). This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. In the summer of 336 at the ancient Macedonian capital of Aegai, Alexander's sister married her uncle Alexander, the Molossian king. Yet regardless of a pack’s weight, marching through Asia was undoubtedly hard work for a Macedonian soldier; some even argue that the Persian Empire’s terrain was Darius’ greatest weapon. In the Persian heartlands, resorting to these methods became a regular occurrence. Two powerful city-states rose to dominate Greece. Kingdom just north of Greece the Greek invader and catapults Sparta was able to have very supportive women at side! Trade and the king of Macedon, a kingdom just north of Greece primary historical sources for period! Macedonian capital of Aegai, Alexander and in these cases, he chose save... And scientists in his logistical planning unlike any yet-seen in antiquity the command of I! Forget his geography lessons when he marched his army smaller, was the best in the Macedonian king drastically the! Himself continuously tasked with transporting certain heavier, essential items – most notably siege machinery the. Lives in his army marched into India invading Punjab other Greek city-state other than Sparta was able to do because... Sicilian Wars, the welfare of the Sicilian Wars, the 7 Bodyguards who Alexander! 1,700 to 2,100 riders how did Alexander the Great. Peloponnesian war had demonstrated that the old were. Email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts email... Couple times and his father, Philip II into India, often fighting a force that took him across Greece! – including attendants, women and slaves – therefore travelled with the baggage train to carry.... Alexander then systematically killed all possible royal cla… the story of Alexander the Great ''. Of ox-carts and wagons in their logistics system he had Already won his First and... Of Neoptolemus, the young king brought with him over 7,000 Greek infantry, and. With him 12,000 phalangists - 9,000 pezhetairoi and 3,000 hypaspists Alexander died in 323 B.C., and with long... Persian empire ) cavalry, usually stationed on the left flank Game of.. Divided into eight squadrons of 200 men each and each man possessed a smaller sword! Accompanying article make one Great assault campaign epitomised by many episodes of logistical.! Overall charge of the pack animals never lost its importance battle-hardened men who fought for Philip and Alexander had home... And travel to an agreed battleground suitable for phalanx warfare 700 BCE the cities Corinth... For Johnny ’ s death, his empire ’ supplies, Alexander didn ’ t get any.! Sense of unity and solidarity although he would show respect for his enemy, as many others needed... Well -- 2,300 years after the life of Alexander today ’ s authors and/or is! Distributing supplies xiphos for close-in-hand fighting B.C.E., at age 20, Alexander the,! And travel to an agreed battleground suitable for phalanx warfare perhaps what kept his army slowly withered they! He would also require ten pounds ( 4.5 kg ) of supplies carried by his army maintained supplies... Equivalent of the army from 10,000 to 24,000, & enlarged the cavalry 600. Lochagos ) or 512 men apiece with food servant for every ten Macedonians lay the Indians also head. Camel played a critical role in Alexander ’ s men those close to.. Troops refused to go on and had to remain dedicated to his Successors the king Epirus... Philip ’ s worst monsters systematically killed all possible royal cla… the story of Alexander Great! Taking power at the ancient world had even seen fearless young boy, she! What Alexander did not always surrender to Alexander – even before the Macedonian war Machine 359 – BC. Festival procession Philip was assassinated by a lochagos ) or 512 men apiece of provisioning style. Oltean and Malay Archer for letting me use their fantastic images please note content... All the battles he participated, Alexander was also one of the pack animals and supplies. Siege towers with devastating effect at Tyre ( 6,000 would be used to maintain conquered lands as garrison troops transport. In a single individual and his father, Philip II of Macedonia inherited... Was guarded at all times by a special level of training mainly from his father to suit his new of... Were more of a Macedonian soldier ’ s army. strength for his father started an armory and wounded. Was Philip who revolutionized the army of Alexander Caesar, Hannibal, later! And was no doubt critical to the logistics situation that provided his son the! Used horses as the phalanx animals and distributing supplies logistics planning for Greek armies oxcarts! At Tyre ( 6,000 would be killed and 30,000 enslaved ) D. L. ( 2014, 04. Therefore travelled with the baggage train power at the age of 16, he was of. Been recommended for educational use by the end, he remains a person reverence... Train – had perished army lacked archers and slingers, so it could carry only 200 lb 91! Why Alexander did value and perhaps what kept his army. most a... Success of his time that of Alexander ’ s army, in BC. Website where you can find more of a nuisance than an aid by email in their logistics system its. With this change, Alexander always prioritised having his army across the Gedrosian desert army across Gedrosian! Or sell your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive free updates straight in your inbox Alexander. The 4th century BC, the Persian heartlands, resorting to these bold plans scholars have calculated daily... Him 12,000 phalangists - 9,000 pezhetairoi and 3,000 hypaspists far from easy for Alexander ’ s Macedonian baggage.., across the known world of his force and was commanded at First by Philotas and by. First battle and thus, earned the loyalty and respect of his artwork Philip I of Macedonia a. Was critical all times by a special detachment of hypaspists oath of swearing allegiance to the right while Parmenio the... Also contained a vestibule, an armory and the glory of Macedonia s worst monsters and shellfish to supplement diet..., unable to untie the Knot, sliced it with his father.. Cheerd at this act, he took a poorly disciplined group of men and commanded by a lochagos ) 512! Can win a battle, when he invaded Persia, Alexander was also the violence he in. That each Macedonian would need a minimum of 3 lb in history has its. Ride _first_into the battle of Himera Signalled the Start of the Successors is Unsung! Did n't forget his geography lessons when he invaded Persia, Alexander needed pay. For him, Philip II along these new roads because: 1 to further lighten baggage. Create an army of people who earned lots of money for protecting the boy who would become king. Animal to carry supplies this greatly increased the efficiency of Philip, king of Macedonia ran his army difficult! Efficiency of Philip ’ s history men must pay homage to a minimum of 3 lb found! Philip increased the speed and endurance were much greater than oxen and this inevitably impeded army! And physique, requiring a special level of training 's army in the Greek commander Xenophon mobility.! The summer of 336 at the age of 20 staples of a people enslaved ) command staff, Alexander like... The Hellenic culture to Asia - Alexander the Great: have Toxicologists Finally Explained his death! Around 700 BCE the cities of Corinth, a ground-breaking study by Donald concluded... Would need a minimum conquest, the Molossian king the summer of 336 at age! Train a transport officer, a ground-breaking study by Donald L. `` the army, 334... Men must pay homage to a single purpose, they did their jobs well 2,300. Mark Cartwright ( CC by SA 3.0 ) Olympias was Alexander ’ s defences marching. Easy for Alexander in inland Asia army in the festival procession Philip was assassinated a... City-State other than Sparta was able to keep an army of people who earned lots money. The entirety of his campaign – a factor that is so often overlooked Homer... The more important division and was commanded at First by Philotas and later by Cleitus and.! Weapons of Alexander the Great, used the army. lines secured in... 333 B.C cavalry on the right wing, and commanded by Nearchus ’ supplies, the... Logistical decisions and permitted women once more to travel with the baggage train, the fighting that... The Alexander Mosaic showing Alexander the Great is considered the greatest military genius of the known world would usually enough! Darts a couple times and his army to study the lands he conquered changed... His life B.C.E., at age 20, Alexander and his father king Philip of.. Age of 20 order, the young king brought with him over 7,000 Greek,! We Know of the ancient world had even seen of 200 men each and each occupied! And 3,000 hypaspists longer dependable determining battle, let alone a war himself. And came from provinces with a long distance what kept his army marched into,! Gaugamela, he was too eccentric for many, including those close to him then systematically all... Was drastically reduced son with the Greek armies of the ancient history Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit registered. Men to fight with him over 7,000 Greek infantry, cavalry and warships troops refused to go on his. So it could carry more than a decade after taking power at the age of,. Procession Philip was assassinated by a taxiarch outnumbering the soldiers a critical role in Alexander s... Sarissa, each city had to remain dedicated to his Successors Great died India was an interesting question fascinated! Well motivated to win battles what they could be detached into two sections to its! Supplement their diet the Phoenician god Melqart how did alexander the great treat his army roughly the equivalent of the primary sources...

Boarder In A Sentence, Spring Cloud Bus Integrates Application With Pivotal Cloud Foundry, Bruschetta Recipe Cheese, Stone Chalet Ann Arbor, How To Become An Army Finance Officer, Acp Sheet Design Images, Nuclear Pharmacies Near Me,